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Control charts are designed on the basis of this natural dispersion of process, and are used to detect, by periodic sampling, the presence of any assignable causes in the process . Sample averages are used, rather than individual values, because averages are more sensitive to process changes. Sampling is economical in comparison with systematic inspection, but is suitable only if assignable causes are persistent, within a sample, or up to the next sample : this kind of control chart is able to detect assignable causes, even with low effects owing to averaging, but only persistent causes.

Integration of process-oriented control with systematic inspection EXAMPLE : LASER WELDING OF FUEL RODS Welding _^ Product on-line H operations inspection '' r-——————— Process variables >/• ) ( ——————— Product variables s, (^Product vanables J) C 1 ! Welding \ authons 1 4^ ' \ Energv Accept *•••--•*• Width Sample examin I Accepted product decision '' Penetration ••—••>• Width I „! i Process 1 control Energy Width <•-•-••--••- fl Penetration Width | Ratio Ratio CONTROL CHARTS 18 m FBFC Lmgen 18-22 October 1999 FIG.

In MOX fuel fabrication process the blending is one of the most important process and unique process compared to UOX fabrication process. In MOX fabrication process it is necessary that several kinds of powder with different composition of plutonium and uranium should be blended homogeneously to adjust decided specification or to make the size of lot larger. Plutonium enriched zone (Pu spot) should be detected by adequate method to secure the homogeneity. The size and plutonium concentration, which are the characteristics of the zone, should be limited within the allowable level.

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