By J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, V. V. Dolenc, J. J. A. Mooij
This sequence, subsidized by way of the eu organization of Neurosurgical Societies, has already develop into a vintage. more often than not, one quantity is released according to yr. The Advances part provides fields of neurosurgery and comparable parts during which vital contemporary growth has been made. The Technical criteria part positive factors precise descriptions of normal methods to help younger neurosurgeons of their post-graduate education. The contributions are written by way of skilled clinicians and are reviewed via all contributors of the Editorial Board.
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Additional info for Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
Exp Neurol 15:425– 436 16. Lea˜o AAP, Martins-Ferreira H (1953) Alterac¸ao da impedancia electrica no decurso de depressa˜o alastrante da atividade do cortex cerebral. Ann Acad Brasil Cienc 25:259–266 17. Czeh G, Aitken PG, Somjen GG (1993) Membrane currents in CA1 pyramidal cells during spreading depression (SD) and SD-like hypoxic depolarization. Brain Res 632:195–208 Depolarisation Phenomena in Traumatic and Ischaemic Brain Injury 41 18. Snow RW, Taylor CP, Dudek FE (1983) Electrophysiological and optical changes in slices of rat hippocampus during spreading depression.
The common clinical observation of ﬂuctuations in clinical state of intermediate grade SAH patients over intervals often of less than an hour is compatible with the capricious behaviour of CSDs and PIDs in the laboratory; clearly, other explanations are possible and cannot be discounted, but, taken together, the demonstration of CSDlike events in TBI  and the work of Dreier and colleagues provide support for this hypothesis. Depolarisation Phenomena in Traumatic and Ischaemic Brain Injury 35 Non-Invasive Detection of Depolarisations in Ischaemic and Traumatic Brain Injury Availability of a simple non-invasive method for detection of depolarisations would greatly aid studies of their frequency, properties and e¤ects.
Until it becomes clear whether or not depolarisations around a contusion have the characteristics of an (ischaemic) PID, it seems wiser not to assign the term ‘‘PID’’ or ‘‘CSD’’ to them. Although there is evidence for ischaemia surrounding Depolarisation Phenomena in Traumatic and Ischaemic Brain Injury 31 such lesions in humans [122, 123], it is by no means clear that the ischaemia is distributed as widely in TBI as it is in MCAO (unless intracranial pressure is markedly elevated). Notwithstanding these uncertainties about the extent or severity of ischaemia, there is ample experimental evidence from electrode studies for the occurrence of depolarisations in the rat brain following TBI [124–127] or in association with an intracerebral haematoma .