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Hornification appears to be a carbohydrate phenomenon (Laivins and Scallan, 1993; Klungness and Caulfield, 1982). Gurnagul et al. (2001) demonstrated that the primary cause of tensile strength reduction on drying was the loss of interfibre bonding strength, with a minor reduction caused by a loss in interfibre bonded area. There are relatively few recycling studies on mechanical and ultrahigh-yield pulps (Ferguson, 1992). , 1992; Howard and Bichard, 1991; Howard, 1995). Refined chemical Page 51 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2006 Advances in Recycling and Deinking How recycling affects pulp quality pulps lose density and tensile strength, but mechanical pulps show small gains in strength and density (Howard and Bichard, 1991; Howard, 1995).

1995). The odour of the product, new or after storage, does not appear to be a problem when secondary fibres are used. , 1995). Sometimes market forces determine the content of recycled pulp in tissue, to the point that some manufacturers are enhancing marketability by stressing high DIP content. The situation is different for packaging tissues, as the final desired ash content is high to generate good opacity. Therefore a strong washing action is not advocated. 6 shows recovered paper processing for producing liner grades (Schwarz, 2000).

Ltd (HPLC). 8gsm newsprint (Rodden, 2005). The Metso paper machine is equipped with an OptiFlo headbox and OptiFormer loadable blades with high dewatering capacity and good paper profiles, formation and evenness. HPLC installed three power boilers; each produces 70tph (tonnes per hour) of steam used to dry paper. The mill’s electrical needs are 40–50MW, all purchased. The mill has installed an activated sludge system for effluent treatment. Fresh water consumption is 11m3 per tonne. Stora Enso’s Langerbrugge mill’s 400,000tpy paper machine PM4 commenced production in 2003, producing newsprint from 100% recovered paper processed on a new DIP line (Gray, 2003).

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