By Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno
This publication offers a scientific research of many universal argumentation schemes and a compendium of ninety six schemes. The learn of those schemes, or different types of argument that seize stereotypical styles of human reasoning, is on the center of argumentation study. Surveying all features of argumentation schemes from the floor up, the ebook takes the reader from the effortless exposition within the first bankruptcy to the newest cutting-edge within the examine efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, defined within the final bankruptcy. It presents a scientific and finished account, with notation appropriate for computational purposes that more and more utilize argumentation schemes.
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Extra resources for Argumentation Schemes
Reynoldl Tobacco Cor11*1Y . - -� ,.. stifild before cong.... tNd tobacco is ) not 1111 addictive � subst8nce 1111d that smoking c� does nat produce any llddlction . , -... ,_ . J. � II • Upelt an tabacco. t"I GtJRt: 1 · 3 · Arbrtlment diagram of the tobac('o t'Xample. Now consider the tobacco example. Like the previous one, this argu ment could perhaps be cleaned up a l i ttle in order to make it more visibly match the scheme. Cleaned-U p Version of the Tobacco Example (A) Joh nston is chairman of R.
Opinion Premise: E asserted A, or made a statement that implies A . Trustworthiness Prl'7Tiise: E is personally reliable as a source. C-onsistency Premise: A is consistent wi th what other experts assert. Backup Evidntr� Pmnist: E's ass e rtion is based on evidence. Concl1tsion : A may plausibly be taken to be true ( false ) . A may I n version IV, all the cri tical questions have been built i n as premises. Now the argumentation scheme is complete by itself, and we don 't need the device of cri tical questions any longer, or so it would seem .
The schemes he cites include argument from position to know, argument from consequences, argument from appearance, and schemes for rule application, including preceden t-ba">ed reasoning and argument from analogy. Each of these schemes wi ll be treated later in this book, and they can all be found in the compendium (Chapter g ) . We agree with Prakken that legal rea'loning is an excellent testing ground fc>r applyi ng argumentation schemes, and in Chapter 2 we take the case of argument from analogy a'> a paradigm that can be used to show the promise of the schemes approach as a research program for studying AI and law.