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By Frank Furedi

Main issue with authority is as outdated as human heritage itself. Eves sin was once to problem the authority of God by way of disobeying his rule. Frank Furedi explores how authority used to be contested in old Greece and given a robust that means in Imperial Rome. Debates approximately spiritual and secular authority ruled Europe throughout the center a while and the Reformation. the trendy global tried to strengthen new foundations for authority - democratic consent, public opinion, technology - but Furedi exhibits that this challenge has remained unresolved, arguing that this day the authority of authority is puzzled. This ancient sociology of authority seeks to give an explanation for how the modern difficulties of distrust and the lack of legitimacy of many associations are proficient through the former makes an attempt to unravel the matter of authority. It argues that the major pioneers of the social sciences (Marx, Durkheim, Simmel, Tonnies and particularly Weber) seemed this query as one of many central demanding situations dealing with society.

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Pericles, the democratic statesman and leader of Athens, gave this speech at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. The aim of his speech is to celebrate Athens’ democratic tradition and political system. His speech begins with paying his respect to Athens’ ancestors and their customs and traditions which are represented as of divine origin. He attributes the great achievement of Athens to its democratic traditions, which combine tolerance with equality before the law. ’34 As far as he is concerned, the respect of 29 32 34 30 Kerferd (1981) p.

Show trials provide an opportunity for those who initiate criminal proceedings to make a statement about what values ought to be affirmed by society, and offer the accused the opportunity to confess, recant or at least apologise. Socrates made no attempt to play the game. 1 Through his denunciation of the intolerance of the gathering, Socrates sought to affirm that it was he, and not his persecutors, who occupied the moral high ground. Socrates’s trial, in a packed court and before a jury of 501 Athenian citizens in 399 BC, was the outcome of a protracted period of social anxiety and unrest.

463. Saxonhouse (1978) p. 468. 40 Socrates and the quest for authority the people for their customs and law is one of the defining characteristic of Athens. Yet Pericles’s speech comes across as an exercise in promoting propaganda for an undefined way of life. One perceptive analysis of this speech discusses of the ‘self-serving description of Athens’, which ‘portrays a polis which accepts the traditions of the past’ in a way that overlooks the prevailing insecurities afflicting the community. What is interesting about Pericles’s idealised portrait of Athens is that the authority of the law is affirmed only pragmatically, and not based on any foundational principles.

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